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BPC 157 (Body Protection Compound-157) is a pentadecapeptide made up of 15 amino acids. The amino acids sequence in BPC 157 is similar to a portion of the human BPC amino acid sequence. Human BPC is found in the gastric juice. Experiments have shown that BPC 157 enhances the healing of wounds, including tendons wounds such as transected Achilles tendons of rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the probable mechanism that BPC 157 utilizes to accelerate the healing process in an injured tendon. The study used two group of tendon explants of which one group was cultured in a BPC 157-containing medium while the other group was cultured in a medium lacking BPC 157. These cultures were thereafter examined for tendon fibroblasts outgrowths. Such outgrowths indicated tendon regeneration.The results revealed that the explants’ outgrowth was significantly accelerated in the culture containing BPC 157 as compared to the culture lacking BPC 157. Also, a MTT assay did show that BPC 157 does not directly affect cellular proliferation in a culture of rat-derived Achilles tendon. However, results also showed that BPC 157 significantly increased the survival of cells under oxidative stress. Furthermore, the Transwell filter migration assay showed that BPC 157 significantly increased in-vitro fibroblast migration in a dose-dependent fashion. Moreover, BPC 157 accelerated the dispersal of the fibroblasts in culture dishes in a dose-dependent manner.

AA Sequence: H-Gly-Glu-Pro-Pro-Pro-Gly-DL-Lys-Pro-Ala-Asp-Asp-Ala-Gly-Leu-Val-OH
Molecular Formula: C62H98N16O22
Molecular Weight: 1419.556 g/mol
PubChem SID: 108101
Synonyms: Booly protection compound 15; BPC-15; AC1L33CB; AM015370; 137525-51-0

DSIP (Delta-Sleep Inducing Peptide)

Neuropeptide DSIP (Delta sleep-inducing peptide) is an amphiphilic peptide of molecular weight 849 daltons. Delta sleep-inducing peptide was first discovered in 1974, isolated it from the cerebral venous blood of rabbits in an induced state of sleep. It was primarily believed to be involved in sleep regulation due to its apparent ability to induce slow-wave sleep in rabbits. Delta-sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP)-like material has been found in human breast milk. Some studies suggest a link between DSIP and slow-wave sleep (SWS) promotion and suppression of paradoxical sleep, some studies show no correlation. Stronger effects on sleep have been noted for the synthesized analogues of DSIP.

AA Sequence: H-DL-Trp-DL-Ala-Gly-Gly-DL-Asp-DL-Ala-DL-Ser-Gly-DL-Glu-OH
Molecular Formula: C35H48N10O15
Molecular Weight: 848.824 g/mol
PubChem SID: 3623358
Synonyms: Delta-Sleep-Inducing Peptide; DSIP; Trp-Ala-Gly-Gly-Asp-Ala-Ser-Gly-Glu

Epithalon (Epitalon)

Epithalon is a tetrapeptide that is made up of four amino acids, a naturally occurring substance in humans. Epithalon induce telomerase production and preserve DNA sequence integrity in experimental studies. These findings suggest epithalon might delay aging process, prevent non-life threatening illness and sustain normal energy levels. Experimental studies showed the epithalon is involved in normalization of uric acid, cholesterol, electrolyte balance, T-cell immunity, neuroendocrine system, gonadotropic hormones and inflammatory proteins including complement system proteins. Epithalon is vital for telomerase activation/telomere elongation, strengthening of immune system and tumor prevention. Epithalon suppress proliferative changes in endometrium and vaginal epithelium in anovulatory phase.

AA Sequence: H-Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly-OH
Molecular Formula: C14H22N4O9
Molecular Weight: 390.349 g/mol
PubChem SID: 219042
Synonyms: Alanyl-glutamyl-aspartyl-glycine; Epitalon; Epithalon; Epithalone; AE-0 peptide

EPO (Erythropoietin)

Erythropoietin, also known as EPO, Hematopoietin, or Hemopoietin, is a glycoprotein hormone that controls erythropoiesis, or red blood cell production. It is a cytokine (protein signaling molecule) for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. Erythropoietin is an essential hormone for red blood cell production and increase.

Molecular Formula: C815H1317N233O241S5
Molecular Weight: 34 kDa
Synonyms: EPO; Hematopoietin; Hemopoietin; Erythropoietin; SH-polypeptide-72


Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness. Melatonin is also produced in plants where it functions as a first line of defense against oxidative stress. In animals, melatonin is involved in the entrainment (synchronization) of the circadian rhythms including sleep-wake timing, blood pressure regulation, seasonal reproduction, and many others. Many of its biological effects in animals are produced through activation of melatonin receptors, while others are due to its role as an antioxidant, with a particular role in the protection of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.

IUPAC Name: N-[2-(5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]acetamide
Molecular Formula: C13H16N2O2
Molecular Weight: 232.283 g/mol
PubChem SID: 896
Synonyms: N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine


Oxytocin is a human peptide hormone and neuropeptide that is used as a medication to facilitate childbirth. Oxytocin is normally produced by the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary. It plays a role in social bonding, sexual reproduction in both sexes, and during and after childbirth. Oxytocin is released into the bloodstream as a hormone in response to stretching of the cervix and uterus during labor and with stimulation of the nipples from breastfeeding. This helps with birth, bonding with the baby, and milk production.

IUPAC Name: H-Cys(1)-Tyr-Ile-Gln-Asn-Cys(1)-Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2
Molecular Formula: C43H66N12O12S2
Molecular Weight: 1007.193 g/mol
PubChem SID: 439302
Synonyms: Pitocin; Ocytocin; Syntocinon; Endopituitrina; Orasthin

TB 500 (Thymosin BETA 4)

TB-500 is a synthetic version of the naturally occurring peptide present in virtually all human and animal cells, Thymosin Beta-4. This potent peptide is a member of a ubiquitous family of 16 related molecules with a high conservation of sequence and localization in most tissues and circulating cells in the body. TB-500 not only binds to actin, but also blocks actin polymerization and is the actin-sequestering molecule in eukaryotic cells. TB-500 was identified as a gene that was up-regulated four-to-six fold during early blood vessel formation and found to promote the growth of new blood cells from the existing vessels. This peptide is present in wound fluid and when administered subcutaneously, it promotes wound healing, muscle building and speeds up recovery time of muscles fibres and their cells. An additional key factor of TB-500 is that it promotes cell migration through a specific interaction with actin in the cell cytoskeleton. It has been demonstrated that a central small amino acid long-actin binding domain has both blood cell reproduction and wound healing characteristics. These characteristics are uncovered by accelerating the migration of endothelial cells and keratinocytes. It also increases the production of extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes. Studies demonstrate that TB-500 is a potent, naturally occurring wound repair factor with anti-inflammatory properties. Tß4 is different from other repair factors, such as growth factors, in that it promotes endothelial and keratinocyte migration. It also does not bind to the extracellular matrix and has a very low molecular weight meaning it can travel relatively long distances through tissues. One of TB-500 key mechanisms of action is its ability to regulate the cell-building protein, Actin, a vital component of cell structure and movement. Of the thousands of proteins present in cells, actin represents up to 10% of the total proteins which therefore plays a major role in the genetic makeup of the cell.

Molecular Formula: C212H350N56O78S
Molecular Weight: 4963.50 g/mol
Synonyms: Thymosin Beta 4; Thymosin beta 4 acetate

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