Product Catalog / Endurance Stimulants

AICAR (AICA-Ribonucleotide)

AICA ribonucleotide (5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide, AICAR) is an intermediate in the generation of inosine monophosphate. AICAR is an analog of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) that is capable of stimulating AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) activity. AICAR has been used clinically to treat and protect against cardiac ischemic injury. The drug was first used in the 1980s as a method to preserve blood flow to the heart during surgery. Currently, the drug has also been shown as a potential treatment for diabetes by increasing the metabolic activity of tissues by changing the physical composition of muscle. The nucleoside form of AICAR, acadesine, is an analog of adenosine that enters cardiac cells to inhibit adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase. It enhances the rate of nucleotide re-synthesis increasing adenosine generation from adenosine monophosphate only during conditions of myocardial ischemia. In cardiac myocytes, acadesine is phosphorylated to AICAR to activate AMPK without changing the levels of the nucleotides. AICAR is able to enter the de novo synthesis pathway for adenosine synthesis to inhibit adenosine deaminase causing an increase in ATP levels and adenosine levels.

Molecular Formula: C9H15N4O8P
Molecular Weight: 338.21 g/mol
PubChem SID: 319105840
Synonyms: Aica ribonucleotide; 5-amino-1-(5-O-phosphono-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide; 5-Amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide ribonucleoside 5'-monophosphate; 3031-94-5; 1H-Imidazole-4-carboxamide, 5-amino-1-(5-O-phosphono-.beta.-D-ribofuranosyl)-

EPO (Erythropoietin)

Erythropoietin, also known as EPO, Hematopoietin, or Hemopoietin, is a glycoprotein hormone that controls erythropoiesis, or red blood cell production. It is a cytokine (protein signaling molecule) for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. Erythropoietin is an essential hormone for red blood cell production and increase.

AA Sequence: APPRLICDSRVLERYLLEAKEAENITTGCAEHCSLNENITVPDTKVNFYAWKRMEVGQQA VEVWQGLALLSEAVLRGQALLVNSSQPWEPLQLHVDKAVSGLRSLTTLLRALGAQKEAIS PPDAASAAPLRTITADTFRKLFRVYSNFLRGKLKLYTGEACRTGDR
Molecular Formula: C815H1317N233O241S5
Molecular Weight: 34 kDa
Synonyms: EPO; Hematopoietin; Hemopoietin; Erythropoietin; SH-polypeptide-72

GW-1516

GW-1516 (also known as GW-501,516, GW501516, GSK-516 and Endurobol) is a selective agonist (activator) of the PPARδ receptor. It displays high affinity (Ki = 1 nM) and potency (EC50 = 1 nM) for PPARδ with > 1000 fold selectivity over PPARα and PPARγ. In rats, binding of GW501516 to PPARδ recruits the coactivator PGC-1α. The PPARδ/coactivator complex in turn upregulates the expression of proteins involved in energy expenditure. Furthermore, in rats treated with GW501516, increased fatty acid metabolism in skeletal muscle and protection against diet-induced obesity and type II diabetes was observed.

IUPAC Name: 2-[2-methyl-4-[[4-methyl-2-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1,3-thiazol-5-yl]methylsulfanyl]phenoxy]acetic acid
Molecular Formula: C21H18F3NO3S2
Molecular Weight: 453.494 g/mol
PubChem SID: 9803963
Synonyms: GW-501516; GW501516; GSK-516; Endurobol

SR9009

In spite of being associated with SARMS, Stenabolic (SR9009) is in fact a Rev-ErbA ligand. It means SR binds to this protein and makes it more active. As a result, the user will experience a lot of positive effects, such as increased fat loss, enhanced endurance, and many other health benefits. Interestingly, it is one of the newest advances in pharmacology, but it is already getting more and more popularity among athletes all over the world. Therefore, in this article we will discuss what SR9009 is, how it works, and all the benefits it can offer to the user.

Molecular Formula: C20H24ClN3O4S
Molecular Weight: 437.94026
PubChem SID: 136927831
Synonyms: Stenabolic; CHEMBL1961796

TB 500 (Thymosin BETA 4)

TB-500 is a synthetic version of the naturally occurring peptide present in virtually all human and animal cells, Thymosin Beta-4. This potent peptide is a member of a ubiquitous family of 16 related molecules with a high conservation of sequence and localization in most tissues and circulating cells in the body. TB-500 not only binds to actin, but also blocks actin polymerization and is the actin-sequestering molecule in eukaryotic cells. TB-500 was identified as a gene that was up-regulated four-to-six fold during early blood vessel formation and found to promote the growth of new blood cells from the existing vessels. This peptide is present in wound fluid and when administered subcutaneously, it promotes wound healing, muscle building and speeds up recovery time of muscles fibres and their cells. An additional key factor of TB-500 is that it promotes cell migration through a specific interaction with actin in the cell cytoskeleton. It has been demonstrated that a central small amino acid long-actin binding domain has both blood cell reproduction and wound healing characteristics. These characteristics are uncovered by accelerating the migration of endothelial cells and keratinocytes. It also increases the production of extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes. Studies demonstrate that TB-500 is a potent, naturally occurring wound repair factor with anti-inflammatory properties. Tß4 is different from other repair factors, such as growth factors, in that it promotes endothelial and keratinocyte migration. It also does not bind to the extracellular matrix and has a very low molecular weight meaning it can travel relatively long distances through tissues. One of TB-500 key mechanisms of action is its ability to regulate the cell-building protein, Actin, a vital component of cell structure and movement. Of the thousands of proteins present in cells, actin represents up to 10% of the total proteins which therefore plays a major role in the genetic makeup of the cell.

Molecular Formula: C212H350N56O78S
Molecular Weight: 4963.50 g/mol
Synonyms: Thymosin Beta 4; Thymosin beta 4 acetate

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